Version: 3.x


TmpKerasModel Objects

class TmpKerasModel(Model)

Temporary solution. Keras model that uses a custom data adapter inside fit.


def fit(x: Optional[Union[np.ndarray, tf.Tensor,,
tf.keras.utils.Sequence]] = None,
y: Optional[Union[np.ndarray, tf.Tensor,,
tf.keras.utils.Sequence]] = None,
batch_size: Optional[int] = None,
epochs: int = 1,
verbose: int = 1,
callbacks: Optional[List[Callback]] = None,
validation_split: float = 0.0,
validation_data: Optional[Any] = None,
shuffle: bool = True,
class_weight: Optional[Dict[int, float]] = None,
sample_weight: Optional[np.ndarray] = None,
initial_epoch: int = 0,
steps_per_epoch: Optional[int] = None,
validation_steps: Optional[int] = None,
validation_batch_size: Optional[int] = None,
validation_freq: int = 1,
max_queue_size: int = 10,
workers: int = 1,
use_multiprocessing: bool = False) -> History

Trains the model for a fixed number of epochs (iterations on a dataset).


  • x - Input data. It could be:
    • A Numpy array (or array-like), or a list of arrays (in case the model has multiple inputs).
    • A TensorFlow tensor, or a list of tensors (in case the model has multiple inputs).
    • A dict mapping input names to the corresponding array/tensors, if the model has named inputs.
    • A dataset. Should return a tuple of either (inputs, targets) or (inputs, targets, sample_weights).
    • A generator or keras.utils.Sequence returning (inputs, targets) or (inputs, targets, sample_weights).
    • A tf.keras.utils.experimental.DatasetCreator, which wraps a callable that takes a single argument of type tf.distribute.InputContext, and returns a DatasetCreator should be used when users prefer to specify the per-replica batching and sharding logic for the Dataset. See tf.keras.utils.experimental.DatasetCreator doc for more information. A more detailed description of unpacking behavior for iterator types (Dataset, generator, Sequence) is given below. If using tf.distribute.experimental.ParameterServerStrategy, only DatasetCreator type is supported for x.
  • y - Target data. Like the input data x, it could be either Numpy array(s) or TensorFlow tensor(s). It should be consistent with x (you cannot have Numpy inputs and tensor targets, or inversely). If x is a dataset, generator, or keras.utils.Sequence instance, y should not be specified (since targets will be obtained from x).
  • batch_size - Integer or None. Number of samples per gradient update. If unspecified, batch_size will default to 32. Do not specify the batch_size if your data is in the form of datasets, generators, or keras.utils.Sequence instances (since they generate batches).
  • epochs - Integer. Number of epochs to train the model. An epoch is an iteration over the entire x and y data provided (unless the steps_per_epoch flag is set to something other than None). Note that in conjunction with initial_epoch, epochs is to be understood as "final epoch". The model is not trained for a number of iterations given by epochs, but merely until the epoch of index epochs is reached.
  • verbose - 'auto', 0, 1, or 2. Verbosity mode. 0 = silent, 1 = progress bar, 2 = one line per epoch. 'auto' defaults to 1 for most cases, but 2 when used with ParameterServerStrategy. Note that the progress bar is not particularly useful when logged to a file, so verbose=2 is recommended when not running interactively (eg, in a production environment).
  • callbacks - List of keras.callbacks.Callback instances. List of callbacks to apply during training. See tf.keras.callbacks. Note tf.keras.callbacks.ProgbarLogger and tf.keras.callbacks.History callbacks are created automatically and need not be passed into tf.keras.callbacks.ProgbarLogger is created or not based on verbose argument to Callbacks with batch-level calls are currently unsupported with tf.distribute.experimental.ParameterServerStrategy, and users are advised to implement epoch-level calls instead with an appropriate steps_per_epoch value.
  • validation_split - Float between 0 and 1. Fraction of the training data to be used as validation data. The model will set apart this fraction of the training data, will not train on it, and will evaluate the loss and any model metrics on this data at the end of each epoch. The validation data is selected from the last samples in the x and y data provided, before shuffling. This argument is not supported when x is a dataset, generator or keras.utils.Sequence instance. validation_split is not yet supported with tf.distribute.experimental.ParameterServerStrategy.
  • validation_data - Data on which to evaluate the loss and any model metrics at the end of each epoch. The model will not be trained on this data. Thus, note the fact that the validation loss of data provided using validation_split or validation_data is not affected by regularization layers like noise and dropout. validation_data will override validation_split. validation_data could be:
    • A tuple (x_val, y_val) of Numpy arrays or tensors.
    • A tuple (x_val, y_val, val_sample_weights) of NumPy arrays.
    • A
    • A Python generator or keras.utils.Sequence returning (inputs, targets) or (inputs, targets, sample_weights). validation_data is not yet supported with tf.distribute.experimental.ParameterServerStrategy.
  • shuffle - Boolean (whether to shuffle the training data before each epoch) or str (for 'batch'). This argument is ignored when x is a generator or an object of 'batch' is a special option for dealing with the limitations of HDF5 data; it shuffles in batch-sized chunks. Has no effect when steps_per_epoch is not None.
  • class_weight - Optional dictionary mapping class indices (integers) to a weight (float) value, used for weighting the loss function (during training only). This can be useful to tell the model to "pay more attention" to samples from an under-represented class.
  • sample_weight - Optional Numpy array of weights for the training samples, used for weighting the loss function (during training only). You can either pass a flat (1D) Numpy array with the same length as the input samples (1:1 mapping between weights and samples), or in the case of temporal data, you can pass a 2D array with shape (samples, sequence_length), to apply a different weight to every timestep of every sample. This argument is not supported when x is a dataset, generator, or keras.utils.Sequence instance, instead provide the sample_weights as the third element of x.
  • initial_epoch - Integer. Epoch at which to start training (useful for resuming a previous training run).
  • steps_per_epoch - Integer or None. Total number of steps (batches of samples) before declaring one epoch finished and starting the next epoch. When training with input tensors such as TensorFlow data tensors, the default None is equal to the number of samples in your dataset divided by the batch size, or 1 if that cannot be determined. If x is a dataset, and 'steps_per_epoch' is None, the epoch will run until the input dataset is exhausted. When passing an infinitely repeating dataset, you must specify the steps_per_epoch argument. If steps_per_epoch=-1 the training will run indefinitely with an infinitely repeating dataset. This argument is not supported with array inputs. When using tf.distribute.experimental.ParameterServerStrategy:
    • steps_per_epoch=None is not supported.
  • validation_steps - Only relevant if validation_data is provided and is a dataset. Total number of steps (batches of samples) to draw before stopping when performing validation at the end of every epoch. If 'validation_steps' is None, validation will run until the validation_data dataset is exhausted. In the case of an infinitely repeated dataset, it will run into an infinite loop. If 'validation_steps' is specified and only part of the dataset will be consumed, the evaluation will start from the beginning of the dataset at each epoch. This ensures that the same validation samples are used every time.
  • validation_batch_size - Integer or None. Number of samples per validation batch. If unspecified, will default to batch_size. Do not specify the validation_batch_size if your data is in the form of datasets, generators, or keras.utils.Sequence instances (since they generate batches).
  • validation_freq - Only relevant if validation data is provided. Integer or instance (e.g. list, tuple, etc.). If an integer, specifies how many training epochs to run before a new validation run is performed, e.g. validation_freq=2 runs validation every 2 epochs. If a Container, specifies the epochs on which to run validation, e.g. validation_freq=[1, 2, 10] runs validation at the end of the 1st, 2nd, and 10th epochs.
  • max_queue_size - Integer. Used for generator or keras.utils.Sequence input only. Maximum size for the generator queue. If unspecified, max_queue_size will default to 10.
  • workers - Integer. Used for generator or keras.utils.Sequence input only. Maximum number of processes to spin up when using process-based threading. If unspecified, workers will default to 1.
  • use_multiprocessing - Boolean. Used for generator or keras.utils.Sequence input only. If True, use process-based threading. If unspecified, use_multiprocessing will default to False. Note that because this implementation relies on multiprocessing, you should not pass non-picklable arguments to the generator as they can't be passed easily to children processes. Unpacking behavior for iterator-like inputs: A common pattern is to pass a, generator, or tf.keras.utils.Sequence to the x argument of fit, which will in fact yield not only features (x) but optionally targets (y) and sample weights. Keras requires that the output of such iterator-likes be unambiguous. The iterator should return a tuple of length 1, 2, or 3, where the optional second and third elements will be used for y and sample_weight respectively. Any other type provided will be wrapped in a length one tuple, effectively treating everything as 'x'. When yielding dicts, they should still adhere to the top-level tuple structure. e.g. ({"x0": x0, "x1": x1}, y). Keras will not attempt to separate features, targets, and weights from the keys of a single dict. A notable unsupported data type is the namedtuple. The reason is that it behaves like both an ordered datatype (tuple) and a mapping datatype (dict). So given a namedtuple of the form: namedtuple("example_tuple", ["y", "x"]) it is ambiguous whether to reverse the order of the elements when interpreting the value. Even worse is a tuple of the form: namedtuple("other_tuple", ["x", "y", "z"]) where it is unclear if the tuple was intended to be unpacked into x, y, and sample_weight or passed through as a single element to x. As a result the data processing code will simply raise a ValueError if it encounters a namedtuple. (Along with instructions to remedy the issue.)


A History object. Its History.history attribute is a record of training loss values and metrics values at successive epochs, as well as validation loss values and validation metrics values (if applicable).


  • RuntimeError - 1. If the model was never compiled or, 2. If is wrapped in tf.function.
  • ValueError - In case of mismatch between the provided input data and what the model expects or when the input data is empty.

CustomDataHandler Objects

class CustomDataHandler(data_adapter.DataHandler)

Handles iterating over epoch-level objects.


def enumerate_epochs() -> Generator[Tuple[int, Iterator], None, None]

Yields (epoch,